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更新日期: 星期六,日22 2017
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阿聯酋記者在迪拜的培訓計劃 (星期五,七月14 2017 09:13)
改革國際金融體系 (星期四,七月13 2017 12:47)
小太陽 (星期四,七月13 2017 10:12)

秘書長對可持續發展問題高級別政治論壇的發言

Twenty years ago, when I was starting my functions as Prime Minister of Portugal, the world was surfing a wave of optimism. The Cold War had ended, technological prosperity was in full swing, the internet was spreading and there was the idea that globalisation would not only increase global wealth, but that it would trickle down and would benefit everybody in our planet.

 

二十年後,我會說這張照片是混合的。 誠然,全球化,技術進步大大增加了全球貿易,全球財富,絕對貧困人口的數量已經減少,世界各地的生活條件有所改善,但全球化和技術進步一起也是如此是不平等現象增加的因素。 世界上有八個人擁有世界人口一半的財富。

與此同時,人們被遺棄在這個世界的鐵鏽帶上,青年失業成為我們這個星球不同地區的一個嚴重問題,不僅破壞了這些年輕人的未來,而且也成了阻礙發展他們的國家,在某些情況下,是全球威脅的一部分,這是由於沒有希望可以容易地被極端主義組織招募,我們看到今天在全球恐怖主義中的影響。

現在確實是這樣造成人民與政府或政治機構之間的信任喪失,人與國際組織之間的信任,如聯合國,人與全球化本身的觀念,全球治理,以及多邊機構。

我認為重要的是要認識到有一個悖論,因為問題越來越全球化,挑戰越來越全球化,任何國家都不能自己解決這個問題,所以我們需要全球性的答案,我們需要多邊治理形式,我們需要能夠克服這種信任的缺陷,而在我看來,這是2030議程的巨大潛力; 因為議程2030是一個旨在實現公平全球化的議程,這是一個議程,旨在不留下任何人,消除貧窮,為人們不僅在政治制度中,而且在多邊形式的治理以及在國際組織中再次相互信任,聯合國。

與此同時,顯而易見的是,當看到今天的經濟時,全球經濟正在改善,可能比我們想要的慢,但脆弱性也在增加 - 政治脆弱性,制度脆弱性,還有發展脆弱性,社會脆弱性; 在很大程度上,脆弱性對今天的許多衝突和這些衝突的蔓延以及這些衝突與全球恐怖主義的全球威脅的聯繫負責。

And this is why it is true that the agendas of sustainable development and the agendas of preventing [conflict] and sustaining peace need to be linked. But here there is a caveat - that link should not be a pretext to move resources from development to security; on the contrary, that should make us understand the centrality of development in what we do and the need to make sure that with that centrality of development we are able to fully recognise that sustainable and inclusive development is in itself a major factor of prevention of conflict as it is a major factor for the prevention of natural disasters and other aspects in which the resilience of societies is so important today.

And indeed if one looks at the global megatrends - population growth, climate change, food insecurity, water scarcity, chaotic urbanization in certain parts of the world - it is also true that all these megatrends are interacting with each other, are stressing each other. And  we have to recognise that climate change became the main accelerator of all other factors.

This is also the moment to clearly say that the link to the Agenda 2030 of sustainable development, there must be a very strong reaffirmation of our commitment to the Paris Agreement and to its implementation with an enhanced ambition because the Paris Agreement by itself is not enough for the objectives that the world needs in relation to global warming. And this is something that I believe is very important not only because of its absolute need for mankind and the future of the planet but because it is also the right and smart thing to do. We are seeing that the green economy is becoming more and more the economy of the future, that green business is good business and those that will not bet on green economy, on green technologies, will inevitably lose or not gain economic leadership in the years to come.

同時非常重要的是,我們認識到,我們不僅需要能夠回應那些生活在社會中並受到政府責任的問題,而且人權也是人民群眾的權利移民,難民和移民,所以不留下任何人也將不得不啟發我們以不同的觀點來尋找移民的方式,而不是以拒絕的觀點,而是理解這也是解決全球問題的重要組成部分,我們需要找到更多的合法的移民途徑,更多的方式來尊重移民的人權,確保他們在當今世界不被忽視。

We know that the global megatrends are also making more and more people move in our world to prevent unnecessary movements, and to make sure that those movements that take place, take place in a regular way is another very important objective of not leaving anyone behind. 

And then there is a central question of funding. And I think it is important to reaffirm today very clearly that developed countries need to abide by their commitments in relation to official development aid, but that at the same time that this is not enough to fund the implementation of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). We need to create conditions to help States be able to mobilise more their own resources and that has to do, on one hand, with tax reforms within states but also on mobilising the international community to fight together tax evasion, money laundering, and illicit flows of capital that are today making that more money is coming out of developing countries that the money that goes in through official development assistance.

同時我們需要確保國際金融機構能夠利用資源和增加SDG實施資金的能力,同時幫助各國進入全球市場,金融市場和能夠吸引私人投資,沒有這種投資絕對不可能實現這些目標。 我們也不僅想想今天的問題,還要考慮到明天的問題。

We are facing a fourth industrial revolution, that will have a dramatic] impact in labour markets. And this will be a problem for many developing countries that today rely on cheap manpower as their competitive advantage; and cheap manpower will probably see many jobs destroyed in the near future  with robotisation, and other forms of  automation… And at the same time a problem for many developed countries – look at the possibility that one day in a country like the US no more drivers might be necessary, no more drivers for cars, for trucks, and that is probably a very important source of employment in all societies in the world.

We need to be able to anticipate these trends, we need to be able to work together countries, international organisations, not to be reacting, but to be foreseeing what is coming and investing in education, in training, in new skills, in the adaptations of the labour markets to be able to cope with the challenges of the future. And for all that we also need to be able to reform, reform at country level, reform at the UN level and other organisations level. Countries will look in different ways depending on different situations, on a country by country basis, into their governance mechanisms, into the way they are able to guarantee the participation of citizens, of businesses and of the civil society in development objectives. In the ways they are able to fight corruption, or to guarantee not only civil and political rights, but also economic, social and cultural rights.

And as in the UN we need to be able to understand that even if the UN development system has produced many important contributions namely in the context of the implementation of the [SDGs], we are not fully ready for the new challenges of the present agenda 2030. That is why I presented to ECOSOC a first report on the reform of the UN development system. I will not be repeating here the 38 measures that are included in this first report but just say that there are a few central areas of concern. First, the idea that we need to have at country level empowered resident coordinators and more effective country teams, more coordinated and more able to deliver support to the governments according to the government strategies - because governments and countries are the leaders of the implementation of the agenda - and to be more accountable to those governments at country level. At the same time, to have this level of coordination, transparency, accountability at global level, being in this case accountable to ECOSOC and to the General Assembly of the UN and to consider that gender parity in the UN must also be an instrument in order to support gender mainstreaming, in the application of all policies that relate to the Agenda 2030 and to its objectives from the eradication of poverty to all the different areas, in the different sectors in which we need to be effective. 

And finally that funding needs to be in line with the objectives of coherence and the objectives of accountability that I have mentioned and that is why we have the idea to propose a funding compact to guarantee exactly that coherence instead of the dispersion of funding in line that are not taking into account the objectives that in each country, each government is able to put in place to achieve thesustainable development goals. 

And I think that looking at this Assembly, one can only be enthusiastic about the fact that there is a very strong commitment not only to the implementation of the agenda but a very strong affirmation of support to multilateral governance as the way to lead the 2030 Agenda respecting the leadership of member states but recognising that only working together we can rebuild the trust that is needed and we can make the Agenda 2030 that factor that brings the fair globalisation the world needs in the present times. 

非常感謝你。

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